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  • FIFA 2 STAR FIELDS

    FIFA 2 STAR FIELDS

    ecolgreen kPrismi srl is company producer of rubber granules with certified Labosport according to FIFA two Star requirements on one product.

    • Artificial grass woven into real turf at World Cup

      Artificial grass woven into real turf at World Cup

      Artificial grass is teaming up with the natural stuff and taking root at the World Cup, blade by blade. A generation after fully artificial surfaces outraged football fans and players around the world, this year’s World Cup in South Africa will debut a surface with millions of synthetic grass fibers woven in between and beneath the natural grass. The first World Cup test of…

      • FIFA REGULATIONS ARTIFICIAL GRASS

        FIFA REGULATIONS ARTIFICIAL GRASS

        Artificial turf has been around now for several decades. It can be argued that artificial turf was originally developed to address the limitations of natural grass. However, the earliest versions were not designed for football and changed the game dramatically. Therefore, football never thoroughly embraced the idea of high-level competition ma tches on artificial surfaces.

        The breakthrough came when manufacturers started to develop surfaces specifically designed for football. Manufacturers have now developed a turf that mirrors real grass. In order to get away from the short, tightly packed matting of the earlier genera tion, nowadays, the concept is to produce longer and more thinly spaced tufts and most of the systems are infilled with sand for support and rubber granules to give bounce. This newest genera tion of artificial turf has pro ven to be the most favourable for football to date.

        FIFA realised that, as the game’s global popularity increases, so the climate plays a greater part in limiting its development. Players in countries at the extreme ends of the temperature range will not necessarily bene fit from the predominanace of natural grass turf. With the deployment of football turf, FIFA has reco gnised the enormous bene fits artificial pitches would bring to the global development of football, not only because artificial turf can be used in more extreme climates, but because where a pitch is used intensively it can be used almost 24 hours a day and seven days a week.

        Due to the numerous manufacturers and installers involved worldwide, all using slightly differ­ent systems, the performance of artificial pitches could be extremely variable. Therefore FIFA, as the world governing body of football, wants to ensure that there is a reco gnised interna­tional standard for football turf pitches and in 2001 introduced, the FIFA Quality Concept for Football Turf. This quality testing scheme uses real turf as its benchmark and awards the FIFA RECOMMENDED Marks to those pitches that meet the very stringent quality criteria.

        FIFA now feels it is appropriate to use “Football Turf“ as the designation for products installed as part of the FIFA Quality Concept. The main reasons for this are because it emphasizes the high-quality pitches that are certified as part of the pro gramme and because the playing characteristics on “Football Turf“ mirror the quality of natural grass pitches, which is required to play the game on a very high level. 

         Many regions of the world suffer from extreme climatic conditions and as a result are often without adequate natural grass pitches. Either the climate makes the growth and maintenance of such fields a burden or the financial resources are limited. Furthermore, the demand on these pitches is quite high and the resulting mix often leaves the pitches in poor condition. The advantage of artificial turf in these regions is more than evident.

        Stadium construction is often influenced by the need to adjust designs for the installation of natural grass for international football. Natural grass needs sufficient sunlight, wind and rain to grow and thrive. However, the trend towards building steep-sided stadia with roofs and terraces for additional spectator comfort creates an environment better suited to football turf.

        The newest generation of artificial surfaces combines the advantages of play­ing characteristics similar to natural turf, including player comfort and safety, with independence from sunlight, wind and rain.

        The new generation of artificial surfaces is easier to maintain than natural grass fields. Artificial it may be, but it cannot just be installed and left to its own devices. The groundsman, whose day-to-day job will change and who will have to learn a whole new set of maintenance techniques, is one of the main beneficiaries of an artificial surface. The time for maintenance is much lower and thus costs for a football turf field can be significantly reduced.

        Most of the football turf fields are owned by municipalities and football clubs who recognise that an artificial pitch can be used almost 24 hours a day and seven days a week since it does not need time to recover. Due to the increased longevity, fewer playing fields are required.

         

        Today, the financial situation has become one of the most important compo­nents of any football club. In order to cover the increasing costs, additional revenue streams are necessary. The newest generation of artificial surfaces with playing characteristics similar to natural turf, low maintenance, longer playing hours and the multi-usage possibilities meets the demands of a modern football field. It can be used almost 24 hours a day and seven days a week. In addition to training sessions and matches of various teams, it can be hired out to companies and municipalities for all kind of events.

        As the game’s global popularity increases, the climate plays a greater part in limiting its development. In adverse weather conditions, the use of natural grass pitches is limited and the performance suffers. Manufacturers have now developed football turf products that mirror the playing characteristics of real grass and are resistant to difficult climates. FIFA has recognised that all year round and improved and consistent playing conditions worldwide bring enormous benefits to the global development of football.

        TEST PROCEDURES

        The FIFA RECOMMENDED marks are only awarded to those football turf pitches that have passed a series of stringent laboratory and field tests. Natural grass in ideal condition is the benchmark for these FIFA test criteria in order to ensure highest playing comfort and to con­stantly improve the quality of football turf pitches.

        Therefore, every turf product must first pass laboratory tests to determine its composition and must then be tested for durability, joint strength, climatic resistance, player-to-surface inter­action and ball-to-surface interaction. In addition, the reaction of the turf to the skin of the players, when sliding on the surface, will be measured in form of skin abrasion and friction for the higher of the two FIFA RECOMMENDED levels. If it passes all these tests, the first stage of the process towards the award of the marks is completed.

        In the second stage, every installed pitch must be tested on site. Firstly, specialised field-testing equipment measures how the ball reacts on the surface in terms of roll, vertical rebound and how the ball behaves when it strikes the surface at an angle. Then it must similarly be tested to see how it reacts to the actions of players – including shock absorbency, surface deformation, slip resistance and traction.

        If the football turf pitch passes all the laboratory and field tests, it will qualify for one of the two FIFA RECOMMENDED marks. The marks will only be given to an installed pitch and not simply to the turf carpet. This is because the underlying base surface is just as important to the playability of the pitch as the turf itself.

        BENEFITS OF A FIFA RECOMMENDED

        With a FIFA RECOMMENDED football turf pitch, everybody benefits: manufacturers benefit from the reliability and credibility afforded by the FIFA quality seal. Players and managers reap the benefits of the outstanding playing conditions of a FIFA RECOMMENDED football turf.

        Club officials, football associations and confederations have the assurance that FIFA RECOM­MENDED football turf pitches have been tested to the stringent FIFA criteria and so meet the highest quality standards. Therefore, only those surfaces specifically suited to top-flight foot­ball will qualify for the FIFA endorsement.

        Football turf pitches that satisfy the FIFA quality standards combine the benefits of natural turf with optimum playing comfort and maximum safety for players. In addition, maintenance costs are low and artificial turf has greater longevity.

        SAME PLAYING CHARACTERISTICS AS NATURAL TURF

        The FIFA test criteria are based on the readings of good natural turf fields. Therefore, football turf pitches have similar playing characteristics to real grass. The way the ball behaves on foot­ball turf and the player-to-surface interaction mirror the game on natural grass.

        SURFACE TESTED BY FIFA

        The FIFA RECOMMENDED mark is only awarded to those football turf pitches that have passed a series of stringent laboratory and field tests. Therefore, FIFA RECOMMENDED football turf pitches are a guarantee for football surfaces of the highest quality.

        FIFA CERTIFICATION

        Only recognised test institutes that are ISO 17025 certified and comply with the stringent accreditation procedures can be accredited and carry out testing for the FIFA Quality Concept. This guarantees the reliability of the FIFA RECOMMENDED quality marks.

        LONGER PLAYING LIFE

        The durability and climatic resistance of football turf products are tested in the laboratory. Therefore, a FIFA-certified pitch guarantees a long playing life and thus increases the return on investment.

        SIMPLIFIED EVALUATION

        The FIFA RECOMMENDED endorsements are a guarantee of quality and safety. This simplifies the decision-making process since football associations, confederations, football clubs and municipalities can rest assured that only those surfaces specifically suited to top flight football will qualify for the FIFA RECOMMENDED marks.

        THE TESTS

        Quality Criteria

        There are three basic categories that define the overall performance of a synthetic surface suitable for the game of football. These may be broadly defined as:

        • The resistance of the surface to wear and tear (durability)
        • The reaction of a football on the surface (ball/surface interaction)
        • The reaction of a football player to the surface (player/surface interaction)

        The series of tests includes laboratory tests as well as field tests.

        The field tests are conducted after the installation of the pitch. The ball/surface interaction and the player/surface interaction tests are conducted not only in the laboratory but on the field as well.

        All football turf pitches wishing to host international matches have to comply with the official Laws of the Game, which may require that certain additional technical criteria be met

         

         

         

         

         

         

        IDENTIFICATION OF THE PRODUCT

        Quality Criteria

        There are three basic categories that define the overall performance of a synthetic surface suitable for the game of football. These may be broadly defined as:

        ·      The resistance of the surface to wear and tear (durability)

        ·      The reaction of a football on the surface (ball/surface interaction)

        ·      The reaction of a football player to the surface (player/surface interaction)

        The series of tests includes laboratory tests as well as field tests.

        The field tests are conducted after the installation of the pitch. The ball/surface interaction and the player/surface interaction tests are conducted not only in the laboratory but on the field as well.

        All football turf pitches wishing to host international matches have to comply with the official Laws of the Game, which may require that certain additional technical criteria be met

         

         

         

         

         

         

        IDENTIFICATION OF THE PRODUCT

        First of all, the product needs to be identified and classified according to the following criteria.

        • Mass per unit area and tufts per unit area
          • Tuft withdrawal force Measures how strongly the fibres are anchored into the backing of the carpet.
          • Pile weight

        Measured to ensure that not only the numbers of tufts are correct but also that the correct dTex of yarn has been used.

        • Fibre identification

        Can be identified by its melting point and so-called glass transition temperature (type of polymer).

        • In-fill materials

        Defines the various types of in-fill available for incorporation into the gaps

        between the fibres of the synthetic turf (particle size/particle shape/bulk density).

        Optional:

        • Compressive modulus

        Optional shock pad under turf

         

         

         

         

         

         

        DURABILITY

        First of all, the product needs to be identified and classified according to the following criteria.

        ·      Mass per unit area and tufts per unit area

        ·      Tuft withdrawal force Measures how strongly the fibres are anchored into the backing of the carpet.

        ·      Pile weight

        Measured to ensure that not only the numbers of tufts are correct but also that the correct dTex of yarn has been used.

        ·      Fibre identification

        Can be identified by its melting point and so-called glass transition temperature (type of polymer).

        ·      In-fill materials

        Defines the various types of in-fill available for incorporation into the gaps

        between the fibres of the synthetic turf (particle size/particle shape/bulk density).

        Optional:

        ·      Compressive modulus

        Optional shock pad under turf

         

         

         

         

         

         

        DURABILITY

        • Simulated Wear (Abrasion Resistance)

        The surface is artificially abraded (simulation of five year period of wear) and tested for the fol­lowing: Shock Absorption, Vertical Deformation, Vertical Ball Rebound, Rotational Resistance

        CLIMATIC RESISTANCE

        ·      Simulated Wear (Abrasion Resistance)

        The surface is artificially abraded (simulation of five year period of wear) and tested for the fol­lowing: Shock Absorption, Vertical Deformation, Vertical Ball Rebound, Rotational Resistance

        CLIMATIC RESISTANCE

        UV / Water / Heat

        Measures the colour change, abrasion resistance and joint strength.

         

         

         

        PLAYER / SURFACE INTERACTION

        Different categories and criteria define the characteristics of the surface that influence the ability of a football player to play the game:

        • Shock Absorption Is the ability of a surface to absorb the impact of a player running on the surface.
        • Vertical Deformation Is the stability of a surface measured by the amount that the surface gives in to impact.
        • Rotational Resistance

        Measures another interaction between the shoe sole and the surface relating to the ability of a player to change direction.

        • Slip Resistance Measures the grip of a shoe sole on the surface.

        FIFA RECOMMENDED 2 STAR:

        • Skin Abrasion Measures the abrasiveness of the surface on the skin of the player when sliding.

        Skin Friction Measures the friction of the surface on the skin

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

        SHOCK ABSORPTION

        Different categories and criteria define the characteristics of the surface that influence the ability of a football player to play the game:

        ·      Shock Absorption Is the ability of a surface to absorb the impact of a player running on the surface.

        ·      Vertical Deformation Is the stability of a surface measured by the amount that the surface gives in to impact.

        ·      Rotational Resistance

        Measures another interaction between the shoe sole and the surface relating to the ability of a player to change direction.

        ·      Slip Resistance Measures the grip of a shoe sole on the surface.

        FIFA RECOMMENDED 2 STAR:

        ·      Skin Abrasion Measures the abrasiveness of the surface on the skin of the player when sliding.

        Skin Friction Measures the friction of the surface on the skin

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

         

        SHOCK ABSORPTION

        The surface can feel “hard” or “soft”. A hard surface can lead to injuries to the body by causing the joints (particularly ankles, knees, hips and spinal column) to compress, which results in dam­age to the cartilage. Furthermore, falling on a hard surface can cause bruising to soft tissue like muscles and, in extreme cases, can cause fractures to bones. A soft surface can cause fatigue to the player running on the surface.

        The human body behaves like a spring when it makes contact with the surface. A spring when compressed absorbs a certain amount of energy.

        The ability of a surface to absorb the impact of a player running on the surface is called its Shock Absorption. The Shock Absorption is measured using a device called the Berlin Athlete that incorporates the elements of the human spring and an impacting force.

        The force received by the anvil is a function of the combination of the spring and the shock absorbing nature of the surface. The measure is called “Force Reduction” and is expressed as a percentage.

        The higher the percentage the softer the surface i.e. the more shock absorbing the surface is. Natural turf in ideal conditions produces values of between 60 – 70%.